1.plot—the arrangement of events
2. figurative language—metaphor, simile, etc.—this language is used to characterize the sensibility and understanding of characters as well as to establish the significance of theme and tone
3. tone—what tone does the narrator or author use—is he preaching, sympathetic, humorous, etc.? Why does the author use this tone—what is gained by he or she using this tone? Would the story have the same meaning if another tone was used?
4. imagery—what examples of imagery does the author use—is it helpful to the story? If so, why? examples of imagery are—the five senses and sometimes six. What does the character or the author make the reader touch, see, hear, feel, smell, taste, etc
5. symbolism—something said but meant to stand for something else. Allegory is also used within this category—things which stand for something on a one-by-one basis.
6. point-of-view—Who is telling the story and what do they know or don’t know? Is the tale told by an omniscient (all-knowing) narrator who doesn’t interact in the events, or is it presented by one of the characters within the story? Can the reader trust that person to give an objective account, or does that narrator color the story with his or her own biases and interests?
7.setting—is the context in which all of the actions take place. What is the time period, the location, the time of day, the season, the weather, the type of room or building? What is the general mood, and who is present? All of these elements can reflect on the story’s events, and though the setting of a story tends to be less conspicuous than plot and character, setting still colors everything that’s said and done within its context
8. character—refers to the qualities assigned to the individual figures in the plot. Consider why the author assigns certain qualities to a character or characters and how any such qualities might relate to your topic
9. allusion—Does the author use any allusions—references to a past literary source or event in history. Authors will use many Biblical allusions. Adam—would bring qualities of Adam from the Bible, without having to expressly state them, just by using the name infers or alludes to the Biblical story of Adam and Eve in the Garden of Eden.