Jawapan

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2015-12-16T16:05:43+08:00

Ini Jawapan Diperakui

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Jawapan diperakui mengandungi maklumat yang boleh dipercayai dan diharapkan yang dijamin dipilih dengan teliti oleh sepasukan pakar. Brainly mempunyai berjuta-juta jawapan berkualiti tinggi, semuanya disederhanakan dengan teliti oleh ahli komuniti kami yang paling dipercayai, tetapi jawapan diperakui adalah terbaik di kalangan terbaik.
The traditional sources of fatty alcohols have largely been various vegetable oils and these remain a large-scale feedstock. Animal fats (tallow) were of historic importance, particularly whale oil, however they are no longer used on a large scale. Tallows produce a fairly narrow range of alcohols, predominantly C16-C18, the chain lengths from plant sources are more variable (C6-C24) making them the preferred source. The alcohols are obtained from the triglycerides (fatty acid triesters), which form the bulk of the oil. The process involves the transesterification of the triglycerides to give methyl esters which are then hydrogenated to give the fatty alcohols
Ethoxylated fatty alcohols are often converted to the organosulfate. The conversion typically uses sulfur trioxide or chlorosulfuric acid: R(OC2H4)nOH + SO3 → R(OC2H4)nOSO3HR(OC2H4)nOH + HSO3Cl → R(OC2H4)nOSO3H + HCl The resulting sulfate esters are neutralized to give the salt: R(OC2H4)nOSO3H + NaOH → R(OC2H4)nOSO3Na + H2O Small volumes are neutralized with alkanolamines such as triethanolamine (TEA).[5] In 2006, 382,500 metric tons of alcohol ethoxysulfates (AES) were consumed in North America
AES found in consumer products generally are linear alcohols, which could be mixtures of entirely linear alkyl chains or of both linear and mono-branched alkyl chains.[9] A well-known example of an ethoxysulfate is sodium laureth sulfate, a foaming agent in shampoos and toothpastes, as well as industrial detergents.


2015-12-20T09:39:40+08:00

Ini Jawapan Diperakui

×
Jawapan diperakui mengandungi maklumat yang boleh dipercayai dan diharapkan yang dijamin dipilih dengan teliti oleh sepasukan pakar. Brainly mempunyai berjuta-juta jawapan berkualiti tinggi, semuanya disederhanakan dengan teliti oleh ahli komuniti kami yang paling dipercayai, tetapi jawapan diperakui adalah terbaik di kalangan terbaik.
Ethoxylated fatty alcohols are often converted to the organosulfate. The conversion typically uses sulfur trioxide or chlorosulfuric acid:R(OC2H4)nOH + SO3 → R(OC2H4)nOSO3HR(OC2H4)nOH + HSO3Cl → R(OC2H4)nOSO3H + HClThe resulting sulfate esters are neutralized to give the salt:R(OC2H4)nOSO3H + NaOH → R(OC2H4)nOSO3Na + H2OSmall volumes are neutralized with alkanolamines such as triethanolamine (TEA).[5] In 2006, 382,500 metric tons of alcohol ethoxysulfates (AES) were consumed in North America.[6]