What's available locally at different times of the year. What traditions and/or religions the people follow. For instance, Jewish or Muslim people won't eat pork.
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Climate, geography, history, plant life, animal life, and access to spices are all factors which influence the cuisine of a particular country. There are many influences that impact cuisine in regards to a culture or people's access to other peoples and cultures. For example Middle Eastern Cuisine was a crossroads for influences and spices from Asia, Europe, and Africa so these factors all affected Middle Eastern Cuisine.